THE POISON GARDEN website Arum maculatum berries on a Cannabis leaf 

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Welcome to THE POISON GARDEN website

...because every garden is a poison garden.

The purpose of THE POISON GARDEN website is to provide insights, many of them amusing, into the human race's long relationship with substances that have the potential to cause harm.

Since the beginning of June 2011, I've been writing a blog about poisonous plants, especially current news stories when a plant is involved.

You can access the blog here.

But, before going any further, it's important to understand that accidental plant poisoning is very unusual and only very rarely do people suffer serious harm. Death from accidental ingestion of a poisonous plant, in its natural state, is exceptionally unusual.

I'm John Robertson and I've spent over ten years researching, writing and talking about poisonous plants. 

As well as running this website and publishing a book about the questions most often asked about poisonous plants, I give talks about aspects of the subject.

Most visitors to this site are looking for information about a specific plant. The menu on the right will take you straight to a plant's page.

A bee feeds on monkshood

A bee feeds on monkshood

This site is not intended to be an exhaustive guide to all poisonous plants and contains much information which is anecdotal. For a reference book on plants, in the UK, which might pose hazards to children, I recommend 'Poisonous Plants: a guide for parents and childcare providers'.

It cannot be said too often that poisonous plants cause far less harm than might be expected. In 'Accidental poisoning deaths in British children 1958-77' published by the British Medical Journal, Neil C Fraser reports on a total of 598 poisoning deaths of children under 10 years of age. In the period covered only three deaths were attributed to plants. Even this low number is overstated since one death was due to fungi and in one of the other two 'the role of ingestion in the child's demise is doubtful'. Thus there may have been only one confirmed plant death, with 'hemlock' being the plant responsible, in twenty years. Fraser's analysis makes it clear that medication, household cleaning materials and cosmetics pose a much higher risk than poison plants.

The number of cases of accidental plant poisoning is so small that very few countries trouble to keep any sort of detail track of incidents. In 1996, however, a paper appeared giving detailed information for Switzerland. Though it would be wrong to suggest that the results are entirely typical of the whole world, they do give an idea of how small the problem of accidental plant poisoning really is. More detail from the Swiss paper is available here.

IMPORTANT NOTE

The POISON GARDEN website is not connected with Alnwick Garden Enterprises Ltd and/or The Alnwick Garden Trust.

But, this is plants in their natural state. It is when products are made from them that the trouble starts. Deliberate consumption of legal intoxicants like alcohol and tobacco cause many millions of deaths every year. Far more than those caused by the use of substances made illegal because of claimed dangers of using them.

Also of great concern are the 'natural' remedies which people take not knowing that they contain deadly poison. Plants in the Aristolochia genus, probably, cause more deaths than any other plant.  

 

IMPORTANT NOTE

The POISON GARDEN website is not connected with Alnwick Garden Enterprises Ltd and/or The Alnwick Garden Trust.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A to Z Links

Introduction to the A to Z section
Abrus precatorius, rosary pea
Aconitum lycoctonum, wolfsbane
Aconitum napellus, monkshood
Actaea racemosa, black cohosh
Actaea spicata, baneberry
Aesculus hippocastanum, horse chestnut
Amanita muscaria, fly agaric
Aquilegia atrata, columbine
Aristolochia clematitis, birthwort
Artemisia absinthium, wormwood
Arum italicum, Italian cuckoopint
Arum maculatum, cuckoopint
Aspergillus fumigatus
Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade
Brugmansia suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Bryonia dioica, bryony
Buxus sempervirens, common box
Camellia sinensis, tea
Cannabis sativa, marijuana
Catha edulis, khat
Chelidonium majus, greater celandine
Cimicifuga racemosa, black cohosh
Claviceps purpurea, ergot
Clematis vitalba, old man's beard
Colchicum autumnale, naked ladies
Conium maculatum, poison hemlock
Convallaria majalis, lily of the valley
Cynoglossum officinale, hound’s tongue
Daphne mezereon, spurge olive
Datura stramonium, thorn apple, jimsonweed
Datura suaveolens, angel's trumpet
Delphinium, larkspur
Digitalis spp., foxglove
Dracunculus vulgaris, dragon arum
Echium vulgare, viper’s bugloss
Eranthis hyemalis, winter aconite
Erythroxylum coca, cocaine
Euonymus europaeus, spindle tree
Euphorbia x martinii, red spurge
Euphorbia pulcherrima, poinsettia
Fritillaria spp., fritillary
Galanthus nivalis, snowdrop
Hedera helix, common ivy
Helleborus spp., hellebore
Heracleum mantegazzianum, giant hogweed
Hyacinthoides non-scripta, bluebell
Hyoscyamus niger, black henbane
Ilex aquifolium, holly
Jacobaea vulgaris, ragwort
Juniperus communis, common juniper
Laburnum anagyroides, laburnum
Lactuca serriola, prickly lettuce
Leucojum aestivum, snowflake
Lithospermum officinale, gromwell
Lolium temulentum, darnel
Malus 'John Downie', crab apple
Mandragora officinarum, mandrake
Mercurialis perennis, dog’s mercury
Narcissus, daffodil
Nepeta faassenii, catmint
Nerium oleander, oleander
Nicotiana sylvestris, tobacco
Oenanthe crocata, hemlock water dropwort
Papaver somniferum, opium poppy
Pastinaca sativa, parsnip
Polygonatum odoratum, angular Solomon's seal
Prunus laurocerasus, cherry laurel
Pulsatilla vulgaris, pasque flower
Ranunculus acris, meadow buttercup
Rheum x hybridum, rhubarb
Rhododendron spp.
Rhus radicans, poison ivy
Ricinus communis, castor oil plant
Rosmarinus officinalis, rosemary
Rumex obtusifolius, broad-leaved dock
Ruta graveolens, rue
Salix alba, white willow
Salvia divinorum, sage
Scutellaria laterifolia, Virginian skullcap
Senecio jacobaea, ragwort
Solanum dulcamara, woody nightshade
Solanum melongena, aubergine
Strychnos nux-vomica, poison nut
Symphoricarpos albus, snowberry
Symphytum spp., comfrey
Taxus baccata, yew
Toxicodendron radicans, poison ivy
Thevetia peruviana, yellow oleander
Urtica dioica, stinging nettle
Veratrum album, white hellebore
Verbascum olympicum, Greek mullein
Vinca major, greater periwinkle
Viscum album, mistletoe
Vitex agnus-castus, chaste tree